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What is air jet loom

There are many classifications of looms. According to the weaving method, they can be divided into shuttle looms and shuttleless looms.

Shuttle looms are looms that use traditional wooden shuttles or plastic shuttles. Due to the large size and heavy weight of the shuttle, the shuttle is attacked by large wefts, causing vibration noise, slow speed, and low efficiency.

The weft insertion method of the shuttle machine is also non-woven, including rapier, air, water jet, projectile and multi-shed (multi-phase).

The air-jet loom is a new type of loom that uses the high speed of releasing compressed air to draw the weft yarn into the weaving opening. It is a type of machine developed in the current shuttleless loom.

Historical development of air-jet loom used for textile                                                                air jet loom.jpg

1949: Only Vacker in Czechoslovakia first produced the air-jet loom. As the spread of the fabric was not controlled, the woven fabric was 45 cm wide.

1956: Developed a combined piping sheet to limit the spread, which led to the advancement of air-jet technology.

1963: The Netherlands has developed auxiliary material introduction technology to increase the width and the goal of the weaving machine.

70 years old in the 20th century: The advent of a new type of airflow spreading-shaped buckle, is a new development in the range and quality of textiles woven by air looms.

Year of mind: The new development trend of air-jet looms is energy saving, noise reduction, networking, popularization, high speed and low vibration, etc.

The principle of weft insertion of air jet loom

Jet weft insertion is the use of air as the weft insertion medium. The compressed production of the jet is carried out to compete for the weft yarn. The weft yarn is brought through the shed, and the jet generated by the air jet is used to achieve the purpose of weft insertion.

The characteristics of air-jet weft insertion are high speed, high tension, small shed, and high requirements for raw yarn and semi-finished products.

The weft yarn is a kind of instant weft insertion method. The tension of the weft yarn is controlled when flying over the shed. Therefore, it is weak to the yarn or the yarn drawn by the fancy air. At the same time, the quality of the weft insertion in the open state of the warp yarn has a great influence, and it is easy to produce yarn quality places such as shrinkage yarn turning back.

Main structure and characteristics of jet loom

The jet loom is mainly composed of side air transmission and braking system, shedding mechanism, weft insertion mechanism, beating-up mechanism, warp let-off mechanism, winding mechanism, selvedge mechanism, scissors mechanism, yarn catching device, centralized oil supply and automatic control system And other composition.

The main structural technical characteristics of the jet loom:

1. The way of weft insertion Under the action of the main and auxiliary tools and the special-shaped reed, the high-speed air flow generated by the released compressed air is used to take the weft yarn away from the weaving mouth to complete the lead.

2. Opening method There are crank entrance, entrance, dobby opening and jacquard, which are arranged according to the organization.

3. Beat-up method There are four-bar beat-up, six-bar beat-up and three-link beat-up.

4. The delivery mechanism mainly adopts electronic semi-active semi-warp continuous let-off and mechanical semi-active continuous let-off.

5. The winding mechanism has mechanical continuous winding and electric winding. Domestic air-jet looms are generally equipped with mechanical continuous coiling.

6. The cloth roll is generally the cloth roll inside the machine, and the cloth roll outside the machine is optional.

7. Box-type wall panels are used in China, and panel wall panels are mostly used in European models.

8. Transmission and braking Direct ordinary transmission, free-level speed regulation; super-start stepless speed regulation; super-start free transmission, spark braking; income and flywheel and transmission transmission, animation can brake.

9. Lubrication Main drive The main drive adopts oil bath type lubrication, and others adopt oil cup type lubrication or oil supply.

10. Yarn supply A floor-standing yarn supply rack is installed outside the machine, which can be set with 2 bobbins, 4 bobbins, 6 bobbins and 8 bobbins.

11. Measuring the length of the weft storage The electric drum can store the weft, and the length of the yarn stop pin of the drum diameter is fixed.

12. Selvedge mechanism There are planetary selvedge, leno selvedge, electronic selvedge, fold-in side and hot-melt side.

13. Selvedge form Two types: raw edge and smooth edge.

14. Choose the number of loops and needle specifications according to the fabric.                                                       Air jet towel loom.jpg

15. Weft cutting There are mechanical scissors and electronic scissors.

16. Weft detector Photoelectric weft device.

17. Weft stop device The weft detects the flight status of the life yarn, the weft detection control unit determines the weft flight status, and the weft detection control unit determines whether it is flying normally and exits the shutdown or continues operation.

18. Warp stop device There are electric contact rod warp frame warp stop device, infrared detection warp stop device and remote comb warp stop device. At present, the warp-stop type is mostly used, and 4, 6 or 8 rows can be used according to the warp density.

19. Display Keyboard display (parameter setting, loom status monitoring, self-diagnosis failure); multi-color indicator lights indicate warp stop, weft stop, waiting and other information.

20. Auxiliary device Auxiliary main jet, draft jet, weft brake device, etc.

21. Control Using a microcomputer to control the core, separately control weft insertion, weft selection, weft storage, warp let-off and loom actions, and set the weaving process parameters (yarn tension, color, solenoid valve closing time, etc.) on the keyboard. The corresponding actions are controlled by each control unit, and there are mechanical control button boards in the middle of the weaving, which is convenient for the operator's operation.

Applicable scope and comfort of air-jet loom used to produce white grey fabrics

The early air-jet looms were mainly used to produce white grey fabrics, with small widths, slow speeds, large fabrics, and low-quality fabrics. However, since the early 2080s, with the development of air jet looms with special-shaped reeds and relay weft insertion technology, as well as the application of electronic computers, sensors and frequency conversion speed control technology, the technology of air-jet looms and the automatic monitoring level of the loom have been greatly improved. In particular, the rapid development of air-jet looms in the past 10 years has made the air-jet looms fierce, fast, high-yield, and high-level automatic control, and the range of varieties has been greatly improved.

The width of the jet has increased from 190cm, 280cm to more than 340cm, 360cm, 400cm; the old main screen has been newly added to the dual-screen, four-color weft; the multi-color guide system controlled by computer software can select wefts from 4 to 12 colors ; Weft raw materials can be chemical fiber filament, chemical fiber staple fiber, pure cotton yarn, army yarn, glass yarn, glass yarn, various fancy fibers, etc.; the products range from high-count fine high-end fashion to thick and high-density fabric velvet textiles Production, DORNIER air jet looms have been used to produce industrial textiles such as filter fabrics, emery cloth twill fabrics, steamed textiles and glass fiber cloths. The electronic jacquard and dobby are equipped with imported systems for the new air-jet looms of Belgian Picano and Japan Wall Tsudakoma to adapt to a variety of fashionable products.

Comparison with other shuttleless looms

Rapier loom: Compared with other models, the rapier loom has a unique spraying advantage, but the yarn inlet rate is low, only 1400 m/min, which is about 50% of the air-jet loom; the silk return rate is much lower than other shuttleless looms. Rapier looms are mainly used for small demonstrations such as decorations and the production of various yarn fabrics.

Projectile Loom: The projectile loom has advantages in the production of extra-wide weaving and high-end fashion, but the weft insertion rate is 1200m/min compared to the air-jet loom; the low-weave weaving used for projectile acceleration only accounts for 15%, and the time consumption is unreasonable; The material performance of the shuttle torsion shaft and the manufacturing cost of mechanism weaving are high; the price is high and the cost is high.

Water jet loom: Water jets have looms in terms of fabric quality, and are only suitable for the weaving of synthetic fibers and glass fibers. The relevant parts of the loom should be made of stainless steel.

Multiphase loom: Multiphase looms can weave with extremely high weft insertion rates. However, only simple ordinary textiles can be produced, and the electricity of each textile is higher than other shuttleless looms.

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